Enisa's last technical analysis of data pseudonymization advanced measures in data protection and privacy

Sergio Guida


Among technical and organisational measures for security and data protection by design, pseudonymisation can reduce the risks for data subjects and help controllers and processors meet their data protection obligations. Nevertheless, techniques that may work in one specific case to achieve data protection, may not be sufficient in other cases. So building on the basic pseudonymisation techniques, Enisa examines advanced solutions for more complex scenarios that can be based on asymmetric encryption, ring signatures and group pseudonyms, chaining mode, pseudonyms based on multiple identifiers, pseudonyms with proof of knowledge and secure multi-party computation. There is not a single solution on how and when to apply pseudonymisation,  different solutions might provide equally good results in specific scenarios, depending on the requirements in terms of protection, utility, scalability, but also comprise of a very complex process, both at technical, and organisational levels as well. Regulators (Data Protection Authorities and the European Data Protection Board) should promote risk-based data pseudonymisation through the provision of relevant guidance and examples.


Data protection; security by design; pseudonymisation; advanced cryptography;

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